AWS D1.1 stud welding requirement – Scope
This article contains general requirements for welding of steel studs to steel, and stipulates specific requirements:
(1) For workmanship, pre production testing, operator qualification, and application qualification testing when required, all to be performed by the Contractor
(2) For fabrication/erection and verification inspection of stud welding during production
(3) For mechanical properties of steel studs, and requirements for qualification of stud bases, all tests, and documentation to be furnished by the stud manufacturer.
AWS D1.1 stud welding requirement – General
1.Stud Design. Studs shall be of suitable design for arc welding to steel members with the use of automatically timed stud welding equipment. The type and size of the stud shall be as specified by the drawings, specifications, or special provisions. For headed-type studs, see Figure 7.1. Alternative head configurations may be used with proof of mechanical and embedment tests confirming the full-strength development of the design, and with the approval of the Engineer.
2.Arc Shields. An arc shield (ferrule) of heat-resistant ceramic or other suitable material shall be furnished with each stud.
3.Flux. A suitable deoxidizing and arc stabilizing flux for welding shall be furnished with each stud of 5/16 in. [8 mm] diameter or larger. Studs less than 5/16 in. [8 mm] in diameter may be furnished with or without flux.
4.Stud Bases. A stud base, to be qualified, shall have passed the test described in Annex IX. Only studs with qualified stud bases shall be used. Qualification of stud bases in conformance with Annex IX shall be at the manufacturer’s expense. The arc shield used in production shall be the same as used in qualification tests or as recommended by the manufacturer. When requested by the Engineer, the Contractor shall provide the following information:
(1) A description of the stud and arc shield
(2) Certification from the manufacturer that the stud base is qualified in conformance with Annex IX.
(3) Qualification tests data
5.Stud Finish.Finish shall be produced by heating, rolling, or machining. Finished studs shall be of uniform quality and condition, free of injurious laps, fins, seams, cracks, twists, bends, or other injurious discontinuities. Radial cracks or bursts in the head of a stud shall not be the cause for rejection, provided that the cracks or bursts do not extend more than half the distance from the head periphery to the shank, as determined by visual inspection. Heads of shear connectors or anchor studs are subject to cracks or bursts, which are names for the same thing. Cracks or bursts designate an abrupt interruption of the periphery of the stud head by radial separation of the metal. Radial cracks or bursts in the head of a stud shall not be cause for rejection, provided that the cracks or bursts, as determined by visual inspection, do not exceed the value: 0.25 (H-C) (see Figure 7.1)
6.Stud Material. Studs shall be made from cold drawn bar stock conforming to the requirements of ASTM A 108, Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon, Cold-Finished, Standard Quality Grades 1010 through 1020, inclusive either semi-killed or killed aluminum or silicon deoxidation.
7.Base Metal Thickness. When welding directly to base metal, the base metal shall be no thinner than 1/3 the stud diameter. When welding through the deck, the stud diameter shall be no greater than 2.5 times the base material thickness. In no case shall studs be welded through more than two plies of metal decking.
1.Standard Mechanical Requirements. At the manufacturer’s option, mechanical properties of studs shall be determined by testing either the steel after cold finishing or the full diameter finished studs. In either case, the studs shall conform to the standard properties shown in Table 7.1.
2.Testing. Mechanical properties shall be determined in conformance with the applicable sections of ASTM A 370, Mechanical Testing of Steel Products. A typical test fixture is used, similar to that shown in Figure 7.2.
3.Engineer’s Request. Upon request by the Engineer, the Contractor shall furnish:
(1) The stud manufacturer’s certification that the studs, as delivered, conform to the applicable requirements of 7.2 and 7.3.
(2) Certified copies of the stud manufacturer’s test reports covering the last completed set of in-plant quality control mechanical tests, required by 7.3 for each diameter delivered. The quality control test shall have been made within the six month period before delivery of the studs.
(3) Certified material test reports (CMTR) from the steel supplier indicating diameter, chemical properties, and grade on each heat number delivered.
4.Absence of Quality Control Tests. When quality control tests are not available, the Contractor shall furnish a chemical test report conforming to 7.2.6 and a mechanical test report conforming to the requirements of 7.3 for each lot number. Unidentified and untraceable studs shall not be used.
5.Additional Studs. The Contractor is responsible for furnishing additional studs of each type and size, at the request of the Engineer, for checking the requirements of 7.2 and 7.3. Testing shall be at the owner’s expense.